nginx和httpd强迫症配置

Nginx

首先注意一下nginx匹配location的顺序(优先级从上到下):

  1. location = (即精确匹配)
  2. location ^~ (即前缀匹配)
  3. 按配置文件中顺序
  4. location /uri (即不带任何正则的路径)
  5. location / (即全局)

conf/base.conf

基本的安全策略,要确保所有隐藏目录(在Linux里隐藏目录文件名前都有个.)不能被访问

        location ~ /.well-known {
            allow all;
        }
        location ~ /\.
        {
            deny all;
        }

conf/expires.conf

根据实际需要再改吧。

此处的过期是在文件时间上进行缓存(即判断文件是否修改),并不是缓存文件(作用不等于CDN)。

        location ~ .*\.(mp3|wma|flv|mp4|wmv|ogg|avi|doc|docx|xls|xlsx|ppt|pptx|txt|pdf|zip|exe|tat|ico|swf|bmp|gif|jpeg|jpg|png|svg|tiff|woff2)$
        {
            expires      30d;
        }
        location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
        {
            expires      3d;
        }

conf/proxy-pass-php.conf

这个文件是拿军哥的改的,增加了负载均衡和故障切换(其实在这里是重试的作用,具体有没有效果我也不知道,参考文章:链接)。

        location /
        {
            try_files $uri @apache;
        }
        location @apache
        {
            internal;
            proxy_pass http://php_backend;
            proxy_next_upstream error timeout http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504;
            include proxy.conf;
        }
        location ~ [^/]\.php(/|$)
        {
            proxy_pass http://php_backend;
            proxy_next_upstream error timeout http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504;
            include proxy.conf;
        }

conf/logger.conf

改了下日志格式,加上了CDN带上的客户端地址。这个要配合根配置文件中的logger一起修改使用。

        if ($time_iso8601 ~ "^(\d{4})-(\d{2})-(\d{2})")
        {
            set $year $1;
            set $month $2;
            set $day $3;
        }
        access_log  /home/wwwlogs/nginx/$host.$year-$month-$day.log logger;

conf/proxy.conf

反向代理的配置文件。我加长了发送和读取延迟,因为有时候POST请求会在服务端阻塞较长时间,超时时间设置太短可能会导致请求还没有处理完超时直接返回502,这个超时建议设置成和php的最大脚本执行时间限制相同吧。

其次是改了X-Forwarded-For,由于我套了一层CDN,按照原来的add的操作,X-Forwarded-For会有两个IP,有些统计插件解析时可能会无法解析。因此直接改成这样就好了:proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $http_x_forwarded_for;

proxy_connect_timeout 300s;
proxy_send_timeout   300s;
proxy_read_timeout   300s;
proxy_buffer_size    32k;
proxy_buffers     4 32k;
proxy_busy_buffers_size 64k;
proxy_redirect     off;
proxy_hide_header  Vary;
proxy_set_header   Accept-Encoding '';
proxy_set_header   Host   $http_host;
proxy_set_header   Referer $http_referer;
proxy_set_header   Cookie $http_cookie;
proxy_set_header   X-Real-IP  $remote_addr;
proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-For $http_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;

conf/nginx.conf

我在网关打开了全局的日志,httpd把日志全部关了

内存不多,核心不多,因此就调成了单进程模式。

user  www www;
worker_processes 1;
worker_cpu_affinity auto;
error_log  /home/wwwlogs/nginx/error.log  crit;
pid        /usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid;
#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;
events
    {
        use epoll;
        worker_connections 1000;
        multi_accept on;
        accept_mutex on;
    }
http
    {
        log_format logger       '$remote_addr - '
                                '$http_x_forwarded_for - '
                                '$remote_user, '
                                '[$time_local], '
                                '"$request" $status $body_bytes_sent '
                                '"$http_referer" "$http_user_agent" "$gzip_ratio"';
        include       mime.types;
        default_type  application/octet-stream;
        server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
        client_header_buffer_size 32k;
        large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
        client_max_body_size 128m;
        sendfile on;
        sendfile_max_chunk 512k;
        tcp_nopush on;
        keepalive_timeout 60;
        tcp_nodelay on;
        fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
        fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
        fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
        fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
        fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
        fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
        fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 256k;
        gzip on;
        gzip_min_length  1k;
        gzip_buffers     4 16k;
        gzip_http_version 1.1;
        gzip_comp_level 2;
        gzip_types     text/plain application/javascript application/x-javascript text/javascript text/css application/xml application/xml+rss;
        gzip_vary on;
        gzip_proxied   expired no-cache no-store private auth;
        gzip_disable   "MSIE [1-6]\.";
        #limit_conn_zone $binary_remote_addr zone=perip:10m;
        ##If enable limit_conn_zone,add "limit_conn perip 10;" to server section.
        server_tokens off;
        access_log off;
        upstream php_backend {
            server 127.0.0.1:88;
            server 127.0.0.1:88 backup;
            server 127.0.0.1:88 backup;
        }
server
    {
        listen 80 default_server reuseport;
        #listen [::]:80 default_server ipv6only=on;
        server_name _;
        index index.html index.htm index.php;
        root  /home/wwwroot/default;
        #error_page   404   /404.html;
        # Deny access to PHP files in specific directory
        #location ~ /(wp-content|uploads|wp-includes|images)/.*\.php$ { deny all; }
        include base.conf;
        if ($time_iso8601 ~ "^(\d{4})-(\d{2})-(\d{2})")
        {
            set $year $1;
            set $month $2;
            set $day $3;
        }
        access_log  /home/wwwlogs/nginx/root.$year-$month-$day.log logger;
    }
include vhost/*.conf;
}

conf/vhost/example1.conf

server
    {
        listen 443 ssl http2;
        server_name example1.com ;
        index index.html index.htm index.php default.html default.htm default.php;
        root  /home/wwwroot/example1.com;
        ssl_certificate /ssl/example1.com/crt;
        ssl_certificate_key /ssl/example1.com/key;
        ssl_session_timeout 5m;
        ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
        ssl_ciphers "TLS13-AES-256-GCM-SHA384:TLS13-CHACHA20-POLY1305-SHA256:TLS13-AES-128-GCM-SHA256:TLS13-AES-128-CCM-8-SHA256:TLS13-AES-128-CCM-SHA256:EECDH+CHACHA20:EECDH+CHACHA20-draft:EECDH+AES128:RSA+AES128:EECDH+AES256:RSA+AES256:EECDH+3DES:RSA+3DES:!MD5";
        ssl_session_cache builtin:1000 shared:SSL:10m;
        ssl_dhparam /ssl/dhparam.pem;
        # Client cert verify
        ssl_verify_client on;
        ssl_client_certificate /ssl/ca.crt;
        ssl_crl /ssl/ca.crl;
        add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains" always;
        include base.conf;
        include proxy-pass-php.conf;
        location ~ {
            autoindex on;
            autoindex_localtime on;
            autoindex_exact_size off;
        }
        include logger.conf;
    }

conf/vhost/example2.conf

server
    {
        listen 80;
        server_name example2.com ;
        index index.html index.htm index.php;
        root  /home/wwwroot/example2.com;
        include base.conf;
        include expires.conf;
        include proxy-pass-php.conf;
        include logger.conf;
    }

Apache httpd

我觉得能不要用httpd还是不要用了...觉得不如nginx好用,搭配php7存在内存泄露的情况(没有做对比测试),官方的文档和相关社区并未找到能用的信息。也不排除是我配置错了,但是能把1G RAM+2G SWAP用满还不主动释放只能等系统触发强制回收业务中断才算完,我也是服。这个问题检查了将近一周了,各种trace显示内存使用集中在匿名页上,并且即便是请求量很小,内存使用也不断猛增。

无奈只好使用prefork模式解决,还要确保进程定期一定要能够被回收,否则就会持续溢出,boom。经过一周的观察测试,虽然worker和event模式的单个进程最大连接数设置合理的情况下能够避免内存泄露问题,但是偏偏就是很奇葩:频繁报502。经过短期跟踪发现,httpd对于多线程模式下并没有机制确保所有任务执行完后再结束进程,反而是管你还有多少线程在活跃状态只要连接够了直接关,然后一大堆502。晚点有空再研究下代码

为了这一个httpd搞腾了一周。醉了,建议不要轻易下坑

conf/httpd.conf

vhost配置中不要配置日志,因为我把模块禁用了所以如果还写日志配置了会报错。

我把用不上的模块全部禁用了,有实际需要的可以自行查看编译选项自行恢复。

#
ServerRoot "/usr/local/apache"
Listen 127.0.0.1:88
LoadModule authn_file_module modules/mod_authn_file.so
LoadModule authn_core_module modules/mod_authn_core.so
LoadModule authz_host_module modules/mod_authz_host.so
LoadModule authz_groupfile_module modules/mod_authz_groupfile.so
LoadModule authz_user_module modules/mod_authz_user.so
LoadModule authz_core_module modules/mod_authz_core.so
LoadModule access_compat_module modules/mod_access_compat.so
LoadModule auth_basic_module modules/mod_auth_basic.so
LoadModule reqtimeout_module modules/mod_reqtimeout.so
LoadModule filter_module modules/mod_filter.so
LoadModule deflate_module modules/mod_deflate.so
LoadModule mime_module modules/mod_mime.so
LoadModule env_module modules/mod_env.so
LoadModule expires_module modules/mod_expires.so
LoadModule headers_module modules/mod_headers.so
LoadModule setenvif_module modules/mod_setenvif.so
LoadModule version_module modules/mod_version.so
LoadModule remoteip_module modules/mod_remoteip.so
LoadModule mpm_prefork_module modules/mod_mpm_prefork.so
LoadModule unixd_module modules/mod_unixd.so
LoadModule status_module modules/mod_status.so
LoadModule autoindex_module modules/mod_autoindex.so
LoadModule dir_module modules/mod_dir.so
LoadModule alias_module modules/mod_alias.so
LoadModule rewrite_module modules/mod_rewrite.so
LoadModule php7_module        modules/libphp7.so
<IfModule unixd_module>
User www
Group www
</IfModule>
ServerAdmin i@xuegaogg.com
ServerName 127.0.0.1:88
<Directory />
    AllowOverride All
    Require all granted
</Directory>
DocumentRoot "/home/wwwroot/default"
<Directory "/home/wwwroot/default">
    Options FollowSymLinks
    AllowOverride All
    Require all granted
</Directory>
<IfModule dir_module>
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm index.php
</IfModule>
<Files ".ht*">
    Require all denied
</Files>
ErrorLog "/home/wwwlogs/httpd/error.log"
LogLevel crit
<IfModule alias_module>
    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "/usr/local/apache/cgi-bin/"
</IfModule>
<IfModule cgid_module>
</IfModule>
<Directory "/usr/local/apache/cgi-bin">
    AllowOverride All
    Options None
    Require all granted
</Directory>
<IfModule mime_module>
    TypesConfig conf/mime.types
    AddType application/x-compress .Z
    AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz
    AddType application/x-httpd-php .php
    AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps
</IfModule>
Include conf/extra/mod_remoteip.conf
# Server-pool management (MPM specific)
Include conf/extra/httpd-mpm.conf
# Virtual hosts
Include conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf
# Various default settings
Include conf/extra/httpd-default.conf
<IfModule proxy_html_module>
Include conf/extra/proxy-html.conf
</IfModule>
<IfModule ssl_module>
SSLRandomSeed startup builtin
SSLRandomSeed connect builtin
</IfModule>
SetEnvIf X-Forwarded-Proto https HTTPS=on
IncludeOptional conf/vhost/*.conf

conf/extra/httpd-vhost.conf

默认的virtual host

<VirtualHost *:88>
ServerAdmin i@xuegaogg.com
DocumentRoot "/home/wwwroot/default"
ServerName _
<Directory "/home/wwwroot/default">
    SetOutputFilter DEFLATE
    Options FollowSymLinks
    AllowOverride All
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all
    DirectoryIndex index.html
</Directory>
</VirtualHost>

conf/extra/httpd-mpm.conf

根据实际情况调整

<IfModule mpm_prefork_module>
    StartServers             3
    MinSpareServers          5
    MaxSpareServers          10
    MaxRequestWorkers        200
    MaxClients               200
    ServerLimit              200
    MaxConnectionsPerChild   500
</IfModule>

关于php的内存泄漏问题

该段于2020年4月8日补充

无意中发现上传的图片在处理时把内存全部耗尽了,检查进程发现和之前出的内存泄漏的问题的症状一模一样,怀疑是Imagick导致的,关闭相应的php扩展后还真缓解了很多

之前所发现的出502的问题也是由于imagick导致的,关闭该扩展后,调小MaxConnectionsPerChild终于不会出502了。这样一来,终于可以摆脱prefork了,页面的渲染速度会有进一步的改善。

实际使用还是会有概率出502,不过内存泄漏问题确实得到了改善。

由于Imagick实在是不可或缺,gd库对于一些功能无法支持,所以还是得重新打开,开回prefork模式了。

# 这里可以不用看了
# worker MPM
# StartServers: initial number of server processes to start
# MinSpareThreads: minimum number of worker threads which are kept spare
# MaxSpareThreads: maximum number of worker threads which are kept spare
# ThreadsPerChild: constant number of worker threads in each server process
# MaxRequestWorkers: maximum number of worker threads
# MaxConnectionsPerChild: maximum number of connections a server process serves
#                         before terminating
<IfModule mpm_worker_module>
    StartServers             2
    MinSpareThreads          5
    MaxSpareThreads         10
    ThreadsPerChild         10
    MaxRequestWorkers       20
    MaxConnectionsPerChild  50
    ThreadLimit 20
</IfModule>

之所以要调这么小,是为了避免并发的线程数太多导致内存开销太高,避免内存持续占用着出现回收延迟。毕竟是小内存的机器,调小线程数有助于爱与和平(笑

所以这就告诉我们,不论怎么整,你还得折腾回去。